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Compiled by JS Lowther
This is a study sheet which may be used to follow the content found on the Audio Message by the name of
What is Time 2
Yes, our world view is a collection of cultured organisms which make up the environment we have come to call ‘our culture’, and for this cause much of what is to be pulled out of the ancient biblical culture via the bible’s laws, manners, customs, and language will seem foreign to us through our modern world view.
Most except a named day of the RC week (Sunday/Saturday or any other) in order to rest in a sabbatical sense there upon; choosing a day we are culturally accustomed to, using a system we are raised in is easy, switching Sunday with Saturday or visa versa (or any RC named day for that mater) gives the effort but is biblicly and/or naturally unprovable, having no way to show by any sign or token that it is the Seventh day / Sabbath of Biblical culture, sanctified by God . Rather those who hold such days insisting upon there sanctification offer an objection attainable to even an amateur history student or bible investigator.
Consider the cultural world view of the ‘Seventh day Adventist’, some quotes from E.G. White in her work “America In Prophecy” or “The Great Controversy”, in the chapter “Liberty of conscience threatened” par. 42:
…The boast of Gregory the VII and Innocent III are still the principles of the Roman Church…
“Reason and sense demand the acceptance of one or the other of these alternatives; either Protestantism and the keeping holy of Saturday or Catholicity and the keeping holy of Sunday. Compromise is impossible.” – The Catholic Mirror Dec 23 1893…
QUESTION-‘How prove you that the Church hath power to ordain feasts and holy days?”
ANSWER- By the very act of changing the sabbath in to Sunday, which the Protestants allow of, and therefor they fondly contradict them selves by keeping Sunday strictly, and breaking most other feasts commanded by the same church.”
QUESTION-“How prove you that?”
ANSWER- “Because by keeping SUNDAY they ACKNOWLEDGE THE CHURCHES POWER to ordain feasts, and to command them under sin.” Douay Catechism, page 59.
E.G White makes good sense in quoting the above Catholic materials including a Catechism in order to show to her readers the logic in the Seventh day Adventist church in keeping a day called Saturday as the modern Jews do. Yet the likewise obviouslogic is failing by the same notion in not advancing the fact that the names of Saturday or Sunday in a repatitious seven day cycle are not determiners of the sanctified biblical Sabbath. Nor is a determiner of the sanctified biblical Sabbath what common day of the Roman Catholic week the Talmudic Jew keeps holy. It is thereby the same logic that should slate any part of the ‘calendar’ of Julius Caesar via Pope Gregory VIII as Pagan-Roman and Jewish-Catholic, and not fit to be used by the Biblical based Christian. The adherence to that ‘calendar’ system thus created and it’s weeks are proof of the power which controls the churches and business of the world (calendarium having come to be the Roman word for an account book or debt record), which are one in the same, easily seen in the 501-C3 tax exempt Churches, falling into Government control via debt records. Yet if you are a servant of YHWH God via the Blood of His Son, I recomend you attempt to give an account on His calendar!
In short, as proof exists in the fact that the day called Sunday was ordained the sabbath, as all other church feasts, by the Catholic church, so all named days of the Gregorian week and their very order, from Sunday to Saturday, have been ordained by another law and earthly ruler and not by YHWH God through the scriptures. The Catholic Church has the power of ordering the ‘sabbath’ of catholicity in as much as Catholicity has made the very ‘calendar’ system of which Saturday and Sunday are part of.
So it is in rebuttal to the above quote from the The Catholic Mirror Dec 23 1893 that I say: Yes, compromise is impossible, and let the scriptures accompanied by reason and sence lead us out of this Catholic box. Saturday’s being the ‘seventh day’, is only evident by counting days on the Pope’s Talmudic faith based ‘calendar’ weeks, yet having NO biblical or intrinsic proof of its own, I thus shall then keep protesting!
Ye Saturday Adventists may likewise ask your self as I do:
QUESTION- By what authority does the catholic church, and your beast of Revelations have to control what day of the week is the seventh?
ANSWER- ” They have NO power as time is to be determined by the lights of heaven as per Genesis 1. For by keeping SATURDAY you yet ACKNOWLEDGE THE CHURCHES POWER to ordain DAYS, and WEEKS (Dan 7:25–change times and laws). in ignorance of Gen 1.”
1. Gen 1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.
All days in the creation account are listed as starting with evening and proceeding to morning. (this is not the main subject of this matter, however it is functional to determine time based entirely out of our evidence text, as well as an enduring way to witness for our selves in our modern time, as this compilation proceeds it must become evident why the prescription starts all numbered days at evening, and should be a perfect way to start the day / yom.
Here is a list of scripture verses to cross reference this thought, as proof from other biblical testimony that evening is the ending and beginning point of the biblical cultures day:
Gen. 1:5,8,13,19,23,31; 8:11; 19:1,24:11; 29:23; 30:16; Exo. 12:6, 18; 16:6,8,12,13, 29:39,41, 30:8; Lev. 11:24,25,27,28,31,32,39, 40: 14:46; 15:5,6,7,8,10,11,16,17,18,19,21,22,23,27; 17:15,22:7, 23:5,32; Num. 9:3,5,11,15, 19:7,8,10,19, 28:4,8, 19:7,8,10; Deu. 3:11, 16:4,6; Jos. 5:10, 10:27; Jdg 19:16; 2Ch. 18:34; Eze. 12:4,7, 24:18. And more!
All of the verses above show some thing ends and a new occur at this time called evening or even (old English: eve, lets look at it a little closer:
The Hebrew word is ערב– orb / arab, all of the below Strong’s numbers and definitions are the same ancient Hebrew word ” ערב “: From H6150; dusk: even (-ing, tide), night. H6150- (rather identical with H6148 through the idea of covering with a texture); to grow dusky at sundown: – be darkened, (toward) evening. H6148- to braid, that is, intermix; technically to traffic (as if by barter); also to give or be security (as a kind of exchange): – engage, (inter-) meddle (with), mingle (self), mortgage, occupy, give pledges, be (-come, put in) surety, undertake. H6151-(Chaldea); corresponding to H6148; to commingle: – mingle (self), mix. H6154-The second form used in 1Ki_10:15 with the article prefixed); from H6148; the web (or transverse threads of cloth); also a mixture, (or mongrel race): – Arabia, mingled people, mixed (multitude), woof.
Notice how every definition of ‘arab’ deals with becoming dusky, dark or mixing, the mention of the Arabian people as a mongrel race fits the context precisely, as they are light mixed with dark peoples. This is no chance, evening is when the day light mixes with the darkness of night, the period when time rulership of the sun transfers it’s rule to the lesser lights. This will be explained below by the scriptures further on.
2.Gen 1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to:
A. divide(H914 –בּדל– bâdal-to divide (in various senses literally or figuratively, separate, distinguish, differ, select,etc.): – (make, put) difference, divide, separate (self, -ation), sever (out). between (H996 בּין– bêyn, In the same sense as in Gen 13:3…between Bethel and Hai. As well as in Gen 13:8…Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee…for we be brethren.) the day from the night. This special attention to the words badal and beyn in this context is caused for full understanding that as it was used in the other sited verses above it is used the same way in Gen 1:1-2. The governance of these lights are preeminent in day and night and it is by them that division is made between one day to the next, rather than just the simplicity of the sun setting behind your local horizon.
B. and let them be for signs(H226- אות– owth– related to H225/H853[- את– ayth- Apparently contracted from H226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely): – (As such unrepresented in English / with the exception of the word “that”.] (in the sense of appearing); a signal, as a ensign, beacon, monument, omen, prodigy, evidence, etc.: – mark, miracle, (en-) sign, token.)
All the examples are usages of the Hebrew word owth: Cain’s mark –Gen 4:15, the rainbow as a token of the covenant to Noah’s children –Gen 9:13, Circumcision as a token of YHWH’s Covenant with Abraham –Gen -17:11, or a miracle signs in Egypt or the wilderness –Exo 4:8– An owth any where in the scripture is a thing that is able to be sensed by the human senses, most often seen, this fact is of much importance to our subject, as not only is the word owth strikingly similar to our English oath, as in to give by swearing or affirming. I have Also intentionally added to the evidence the word ayth, the reason being that it’s function is to point out the object in reference, just as the word owth, is a sign or signal to point out or token a thing.
C. and for seasons (H4150- מועדה מעד מועד– mo-ade- From H3259; properly an appointment, that is, a fixed time or season; specifically a festival; conventionally a year; by implication, an assembly (as convened for a definite purpose); technically the congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal (as appointed beforehand): – appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, (set) time (appointed). This Very important word shall be dealt with in detail below.
D. and for days H3117- יום– yôm-From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially): – age, day, days …(process of) time,
E. and years ( H8141- שׁנה– shânâh- from H8138 (to fold, that is, duplicate (literally or figuratively; by implication to transmute (transitively or intransitively): – do (speak, strike) again, alter, double;) a year (as a revolution of time).
F. And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth:
and it was so.
Gen 1:16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. (To him that made great lights:.. The sun to rule by day:.. The moon and stars to rule by night: for his mercy endureth for ever. (Psa 136:7-9)- If the context is some how difficult to understand in Genesis, let David explain so that there is no question what the greater and lesser lights are. We may day after day look to the heavens, even with out David’s psalm, life and common sense bears witness to the fact of what lights are greater and lesser.)
Gen 1:17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,
Gen 1:18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.
Gen 1:19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.
The law listed above was set forth by YHWH to guide a able minded people through the ages, using the only true reference points we have to gauge time. It must be understood that most western calendars at this time measure nothing, but are generalized averages of time, divided as human dictates felt fit and ignored until an agricultural impact makes their failure self evident. Above, God teaches His creation and children to use the lights in heaven in order to keep track of true: signs , seasons, days and years.
I will now tie up this very simple reasons why we are in need of knowing the above defined information as it pertains to our understanding the Sabbath/seventh day of scripture. In so much as the Sabbath is a portion of time, it must therefore be defined as time is know in the scriptures. YHWH God would not set forth the laws governing time by the lights of heaven contained in Gen 1:5-15 and then ignore those organic laws of creation in order to establish another system solely devoted to a “sabbath day” styled system of weeks believed to be found in focusing solely on Gen 2:1-3; nay, but Almighty God’s order is laid out for us plainly and logically, so simple that children should see it and be able to follow the fourth commandment which is naturally related in order to the first laws on time keeping.
It is here then that focus is on what the lights tells us as it pertains to the Gen 2 account of sabbath.
As the sabbath is the seventh day (Yom) it is governed by all three lights in the heavens: Sun, Moon, and Stars (For His mercy endureth forever!) as scripture teaches us. I have matched the letters to the above for ease of referencing the additional points noted on language and logic.
B. The lights are for signs (owth), that is conveying or communication by the lights seen as to an event. The lights will be witness to us of the time it is.
In the scripture does the sabbath fit this? Is the sabbath / seventh day and owth?
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign ( owth- אותH226)1. between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am YHWH that doth sanctify you. Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you: every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people. Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to YHWH: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant. It is a sign ( owth אותH226) between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six daysYHWH made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed… (Exo 31:12-18)
Accordingly the Sabbath is a sign / owth, which as proven by multiple examples, is a thing able to be sensed by the human senses: Cain’s mark, the rainbow, circumcision, or miraculous signs, they are seen to witness a covenant that God will do as he has said; just as the Sabbath witnesses the seventh day rest after creation, that ye may know that I am YHWH that doth sanctify you. The Sabbath is both a covenant and the sign of it, just as circumcision is both an action done as well as a covenant made in the flesh, felt and able to be seen. Consider the language of this excerpt from Gen 17:2-14:
And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly… behold, my covenant is with thee… And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee… And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations. This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token / sign( owth אותH226) of the covenant betwixt me and you. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed…
This comparison is a clear cut issue of how covanental signs / tokens (owth(s) work, the statements are close to identicle in order; the Sabbath is no diferent, in that it is: a Sign (owth) between YHWH and His people, a(n) everlasting / perpetual covenant, and a capital offence for wilful neglect.
The Sabbath is a sign, a thing that is seen, in that it is a measure of time, it is witnessed by the lights in the heavens.
C. The lights are for seasons (H4150- מועד– mo-ad– properly an appointment, that is, a fixed time or season).
Is the sabbath a season?
In our modern vernacular the word season has lost it’s King James Version meaning, yet even in 1828 the Strong’s definition for moad would fit perfectly well in an English definition for season, Webster’s 1828 puts it thus:
SE’ASON. n. se’zn. Season literally signifies that which comes or arrives; and in this general sense, is synonymous with time. Hence,
1. A fit or suitable time; the convenient time; the usual or appointed time; as, the messenger arrived in season; in good season. This fruit is out of season.
2. Any time, as distinguished from others.
It would be general logic to say that the Sabbath or seventh day is an appointed time, that is distinguished from other time. But does the scripture offer any answers for how the lights of the heavens are used for seasons / moad(im)? Or that the Sabbath is indeed a moad?
Lev 23:1-4 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, (2) Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts (moadiH4150) of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts (moadiH4150). (3) Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the sabbath of the LORD in all your dwellings. (4) These are the feasts (moadiH4150) of the LORD, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons (moadimH4150).
The word season(s) would have seemingly been a less confusing option for the translators to choose every time they translated a grammatical variant of moad, yet I speak from a 21 century perspective. Nevertheless, notice how FOUR time a grammatical variation of the word moad is used, four times. The word is best rendered season / seasons that is an appointed time governed by the Heavens, and as time is concerned accompanied by a(n) owth sign / token / witness in the light(s) of the heavens.
In the ancient world, man made calendar systems did not prevail, today the paper one on the wall only has the similitude of accurate time keeping, missing some very essential parts, as those of which we speak of now from Gen 1:14-15. In the scriptural world, all appointed times, appointed by God or man were set according to the natural, God given ‘calendar’ system of sun, moon and stars. All time keeping in the scriptures is based upon the kingdom (government) of Heaven through it’s lights, the Sabbath with other appointed “feasts” or seasons of YHWH are with out exception.
Consider this translation from the 1898 Young’s Literal Translation:
Lev 23:2-4 `Speak unto the sons of Israel, and thou hast said unto them, Appointed seasons of Jehovah, which ye proclaim, holy convocations, are these: they are My appointed seasons: (3) six days is work done, and in the seventh day is a sabbath of rest, a holy convocation; ye do no work; it is a sabbath to Jehovah in all your dwellings. (4) `These are appointed seasons of Jehovah, holy convocations, which ye proclaim in their appointed seasons:
The Young’s literal translation above is most accurate on this subject, leaving the reader with little doubt that all mentioned moad-(i)-(im) are “appointed seasons”, the Sabbath being the first is included with no exception, and all are( JeHoVaH) God’s very own appointed times, those which he has declared and then after commanded Israel to proclaim. It is here that a strong persuasion must, at the very least, be examined and considered, that is that the Sabbath / holy convocations, days of no servile work, as they which are the head and tail of the appointed seasons “feasts”, which are contained from the 15th day to the 22nd day of the first and seventh biblical month are, none other than the Sabbaths mentioned in Lev 23:3, thus keeping the weekly seventh day and the Sabbaths of the festivals as one in the same.
If there is any validity in the afore mentioned, that the “festival” sabbaths and the weekly seventh day / Sabbath are part of the Gen 1:14 system of heavenly time keeping, then it must be testified to by the word of God and told:
What light(s) are appointed by YHWH God for seasons?
Psa 104:19 He (YHWH) appointed (H6213-עשׂה–aw-saw- to do or make) the moon for seasons (H4150- moad-im): the sun knoweth his going down.
Here the psalmist sings of the works and doings of YHWH, among those wonders are the moon’s appointing of seasons / moadim and the sun’s going down / ‘door’ (entrance / exit). It is here that the Word of God specificly mentions the moon being made / created / “appointed” for moad-im / seasons; according to the psalmist the moon was made for the very purpose of ‘moadim’ (seasons). The moon is thus a crucial and essential part of Leviticus 23 and Genesis 1:14-15’s appointed seasons; while the lights (plural) are all for time keeping or seasons, the moon has a special place in it’s creation or making, that it was made to show God’s very own appointed seasons / moad-im.
The apcryphal book of the Wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach or Ecclesiasticus 43:6-10 presents an ancient perspective of a post captivity Israelite, having his text in the LXX Greek we have the ability to also understand this perspective. While some may not respect the books labeled apocrypha as canon, they must be at least regarded as presenting an ancient perspective; Jesus son of Sirach put it thus as pertaining to the heavenly function:
6 He made the moon also to serve (appear) in her season for a declaration of times, and a sign of the world. 7 From the moon is the sign of feasts, a light that decreaseth in her perfection. 8 The month (Chodesh) is called after her name, increasing wonderfully in her changing (Hebrew word for month: Chodesh-H2320-חדשׁ-From H2318-to be new; causatively to rebuild; the new moon) (9?)being an instrument of the armies (Camp pitched) above, shining in the firmament of heaven; 9 The beauty of heaven, the glory of the stars, an ornament, giving light to the highest places of the Lord 10 At the commandment of the holy one they will stand in their order, and never faint in their watches.
From the wisdom of Sirach, we see not only the clock work or the moon but that of the stars with it in the back drop. The moon traveling through the stars in the firmament of Heaven is seen as a camp or army pitched on high standing watch. The moon and stars work together in Jesus son of Sirach’s mind, yet the moon is no doubt the the “sign (G4592) of the feasts (G1859), among those “feasts” of the post captivity Israelites was the weekly Sabbath / seventh day as the Law in Lev 23 has commanded In the LXX Greek text of Sirach the same words are used as in Lev 23 and Exo 31:13-17. As the moon makes declaration of time, it must therefore be a declaration of the week and thus of the Sabbath.
( NOT IN BOOKLET, added for synopsis clarity, I HOPE!
On account of the Biblical, heavenly and natural evidence the fact of the determination is yet to be had on what day the sabbath would indefinitely be?, or in these matters it is better to be said, most likely be ? Above it is outlined by scriptural evidence that the sabbath is indeed a:
Sign = owth – אות – H226: Exo 31:13-17
Season = mo-ad – מועד– H4150 :Lev 23:2-3
Day = yom– יום–H3117: Gen 2:2 -3, et al
and even a Year, however this is not the subject matter particularly, Lev 25:8
Then right division must be had in order to determine the exact times of the sabbaths, to fit into the proper division of days in our specific locality as determined from evening to morning and evening again. Remembering the first principles of time division into Days / Yom (s) is important as the first aspect of the lights are inculcated into the formula. There are two “types of days / Yom(s), 1. is the holistic (so called 24hr) Day, this is Yom, as well 2. is the light period of Day as Gen 1:5 showes both. Seen in the operation of the lights of heaven in the aboved outlined points 2. A and 2. D, both types of Day are present, while Gen 1:5 has the functionary nature of the lights built in the function itself, either,always was or was given to the lights in Gen 1:14 to pick up where time was at that very time. Thus evening and morning are the ordained order of heavenly time as a division of day from night and from day to day with in our own locality in the scope of the above heavens.
Psalms 104:19-23 tells that:
(19) He appointed the moon for seasons: the sun knoweth his going down.
(20) Thou makest darkness, and it is night: wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth.
(21) The young lions roar after their prey, and seek their meat from God.
(22) The sun ariseth, they gather themselves together, and lay them down in their dens.
(23) Man goeth forth unto his work and to his labour until the evening.
The season in vrs 19 is the same moad and the evening is the same arab, the life of beast and man are affected by the moad-im, that is the plural form of moad or moad-i which is more the personal form of moad, as used in Lev 23:2 and to be proclaimed, yet the evening tide of the moon’s seasons are appointed by YHWH for all of the world. It is no doubt that a collective civil body, Church, must establish moad-i for the local congration’s worship, yet it must be established upon the moon’s seasons, as the “phases” of the moon are spaced at a 7 day interval is can be seen that the moon’s plural moad-im of Ps 104:19 is the moad-i of Lev 23:2 ‘s personal season of YHWH proclaimed by the children of Israel.
If the lights in the heaven are for seasons (Gen 1:14-18) and seasons are appointed by the moon (Ps 104:19) and are the seasons are sabbaths (Lev 23), the covenantal sabbath sign as described in Exodus 31:13-17, are the literal signs of the moon’s seasons to be proclaimed by local congregations who share in the same evening to evening assembly.
How to use the moon’s sign and seasons.
Functionally, as the wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach, teaches the moon it self was to serve in her season for a declaration of times, and a sign of the world. From the moon is the sign of feasts, a light that decreaseth in her perfection. The month is called after her name, increasing wonderfully in her changing… Above it was mentioned that the Hebrew word Chodesh is the word being refereed to here as it references both the function of the moon’s rebuilding or renewal and the moonth it self. It is therefore able to be understood the sign of the “feasts” is the Exo 31 sabbath sign and the sabbath sign is derived from the moon via it’s Chodesh, or renewal.
Back to booklet excerpt.)
Observing the Sabbath day
…Exodus 31, tells us that the Sabbath is a sign, Genesis 1 tells us that the lights are for signs, this would tell us that the sabbath is a sign in the lights to cause distinction on that day. Some feel that the moon is a “beacon”, that it will give the sign to tell us of the following day to come, which to them is the sabbath. My objection is that, the sabbath is the sign or beacon, as per Ex 31. The moon is for signs, the sign is the sabbath- Just as any other covenant, as mentioned above. But what about when all the phases line up but the last? There is a special reason for the last quarter / last half to some times be off set from the seventh day, that reason is to indicate the length of the month at hand. Some months having 29 days some 30, the only way to know this is by using the Ex 20/ fourth commandment formula. Upon your next month: Follow the seventh day count after the new moon, sighting : first half at solar noon and full as evening , then last half at true midnight until solar noon when sighting on the seventh day- if that night watch of the moon presents a close to perfect half from moon rise to solar noon or a concaved like moon, that is less than half, the month is 29 days in length, giving that following moonth 1 new moon day light period. If however, the sighting on that third weekly Sabbath is a ‘pregnant’ half, that is beyond a half, the moon is in need of more time to become aligned, and is indicating to you a 30 day month, telling you that you will literally have a 2 day new moon day light period, one at the end of the moonth and another at the beginning as the 1st day of the following moonth.
An example of a 30 day month with 2 days of new moon is given in 1Sa 20:27, where David’s seat is empty for a new moon feast, not just one but two days, John Gill’s exposition of the bible says this:1 Samuel 20:27
And it came to pass on the morrow, which was the second day of the month,…. The Targum is,”and it was on the day after it, which was the intercalation of the second month;”when the beginning of the month was judged of by the appearance of the moon, and there was a difficulty about that, what day it appeared on, two days were kept for it; and Abarbinel (e) is clear for it, that two days were kept in this month…
It is known to many peoples of the world who still use the moon as a keeper of the month, that this formula, using the number seven woven in to the lunar cycle tells the enumeration of days in the month at hand, would not David and Johnathan have known this when David said unto Jonathan, “Behold, to morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third day at even. Then Jonathan said to David, To morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty. And when thou hast stayed three days, then thou shalt go down quickly, and come to the place where thou didst hide thyself…(1 Samuel 20:5-19)
Numbering from the day they spoke, being the sabbath day of the 29th, the friends knew their were to be a 2 day new moon scheduled for that month.
Furthermore, to add to this evidence is the very words and alignment of the following chapter of 1 Samuel when David directly after goes to Abiathar the Priest in asking for bread: And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread under mine hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women. And David answered the priest, and said unto him, Of a truth women have been kept from us about these three days, since I came out, and the vessels of the young men are holy, and the bread is in a manner common, yea, though it were sanctified this day in the vessel. So the priest gave him hallowed bread: for there was no bread there but the shewbread, that was taken from before YHWH, to put hot bread in the day when it was taken away.
(1Sa 21:4-6 KJV)
When seeing that the men had kept themselves from women for three days, we know from the previous chapter that it was on account of the New moons and the Sabbath. How do we know the sabbath was assuredly connected with the new moon at this time and represents the point I am wishing to make?
And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month (And it came to pass in the first month, in the second year after their going forth out of Egypt, the new moon…40:17 Brenton)…Moses reared up the tabernacle…And he put the table in the tent of the congregation, upon the side of the tabernacle northward, without the vail. And he set the bread in order upon it before YHWH; as YHWH had commanded Moses... (Exo 40:17-24)
Connecting the resent above verse which is indicative of the new moon, being the first day of the month, with Lev 24:5-9: And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof… And thou shalt set them in two rows, six on a row, upon the pure table before YHWH. And thou shalt put pure frankincense upon each row, that it may be on the bread for a memorial, even an offering made by fire unto YHWH. Every sabbath he shall set it in order before YHWH continually, being taken from the children of Israel by an everlasting covenant…
Not only do the facts show that the first day of the month/new moon is the day of setting the table of shewbread in order before YHWH, but they likewise make known that this event was commanded to be done every Sabbath; therefore the new moon must be part of the Sabbath ordained by God and known to Israel.
In ending this work I wish to lastly make this point before ending off, due to the information contained in the language, it must not be forgotten that the Sabbath as dictated by the Heavens is a lunar event, it is not just a day or a repetitious count of days, it is a literal happening which signifies that a seventh of time has passed, for example I would encourage you to read the Greek LXX and the New Testament Greek scriptures to see the language used in speaking of what was translated a “week”, I will give a few examples:
English from Greek Texts +Strong’s Numbers
Psa_24:1 A Psalm for David on the first day of the week. (Brenton LXX)
Psa_24:0 A psalm to David of the oneG1520 of theG3588 Sabbaths.G4521 (ABP+)
Psa_48:1 A Psalm of praise for the sons of Core on the second day of the week. (Brenton LXX)
Psa_48:0 A psalm; an ode to the sons of Korah; secondG1208 Sabbath.G4521 (ABP+)
Psa_94:1 A Psalm of David for the fourth day of the week. (Brenton LXX)
Psa_94:0 A psalm to David; fourthG5076.1 of Sabbath.G4521 (ABP+)
English from Greek Texts +Strong’s Numbers
Mat 28:1 In the end(G3796) of the sabbath,G4521 as it began to dawnG2020 towardG1519 the firstG3391 day of the week,G4521… (KJV)
And lateG3796 G1161 on Sabbath,G4521 in the evening on day oneG1520 of Sabbath,G4521 came…(ABP+)
οψεG3796 δεG1161 NOW LATE σαββατωνG4521 τηG3588 ON SABBATH, επιφωσκουσηG2020 [G5723] AS IT WAS GETTING DUSK ειςG1519 TOWARD “THE” μιανG3391 FIRST “DAY” σαββατωνG4521 OF “THE” WEEK… (IGNT+)
Act 20:7 And upon the firstG3391 day of theG3588 week,G4521… (KJV)
And on day oneG1520 of theG3588 Sabbaths,G4521 … (ABP+)
εν δε τη μιαG3391 FIRST “DAY” τωνG3588 OF THE σαββατωνG4521 WEEK… (IGNT+)
1Co_16:2 Upon the firstG2596 G3391 day of the weekG4521… (KJV)
According to oneG1520 of the SabbathsG4521 …(ABP+)
κατα μιανG3391 EVERY FIRST “DAY” σαββατωνG4521 OF THE WEEK… (IGNT+)
All of the above verses of Holy Writ are using the word Sabbath (Lit. Greek: Sabaton), in the sense of the word week, yet the ancient cultural mindset is ignored by many. For instance, read any one of the above Greek Scriptures, from LXX or NT text and you will see a number such as: one, two or four followed by “of Sabbath”; in the Brenton, Interlinear Greek New Testament and KJV the translators kept with keeping the concept of a week, as in the “first, second or fourth (day) not in Greek Text) of the week”, making the Hebrew-Greek word “sabaton” equivalent to the English word week, which has been shown above in the Hebrew to be true, yet in keeping with the Biblical Hebrew concept that the word Sabbath, shabwa, and shaba are all grammatic variants meaning rest, fulfill, settle, oath, swear, seven and week, the above Greek makes logical sense that both the Brenton translation and the Apostles Bible translation accuratly display that the week is made of sevenths, and sevenths are fulfilled by Sabbath days. The Greek translations of the original Hebrew have presented a fractional way to explain the Israelite Sabbath. For when using the moon as a time keeper as explained previously, the moon presents it’s signs in sevenths: thus it is that the first, second and fourth (day) of sabbath mentioned are simply referring to the moon’s light as a fractional ‘pie chart’, showing the one of seven = 1/7 = first day of the week; two of seven = 2/7 = second day of the week or four of seven = 4/7 = fourth day of the week, the sighting is as seen in the heavens by the Sabbath observer.
I have placed this information on the Greek scriptures at this point to tie in the new moon’s relevance to having a Gen 1:14 Sabbath, working in harmony with with Exodus 20’s fourth commandment. The Greek abstract language is used in a perfectly harmonious way to explain a very organic system, based on facts and evidence.
Some have insisted that the Greek words literally translated “First of the Sabbath”, validate a “Sunday” sabbath, or a first day of the week sabbath, yet a sabbath by definition is the fulfillment of the one through six working days, the completed, settled, ceased, Sabbath(ed) days. The Pagan named day of Sunday can never be the biblical Sabbath hallowed and commanded by the Father of our Lord Jesu(s) Christ; remember that all modern “week days” are just names, identifying and measuring nothing intrinsic, save a repeating count on a Roman Catholic calendar. While the Greek verses above are no doubt referring to “the first day of the week”, the week in reference is that of the Sabbath (as the Greek states) and not the week of Pagan Rome adopted by the RC popes.
While many Bible students such as my self have thought (and do unfortunately think yet) though the Pagan Roman Catholic culture- which ignores the relevance of the new moon as mentioned in scripture. For our culture sees Exodus 20:8-11 / the fourth commandment, that a ‘week’ must be made of 7 days of 24 hours, the and only the 7th 24 hour day is the sabbath. Interesting enough in out Anglo-Saxon root word of our English word “Week”, is in the very bending of the moon, as was the focal point, and the meaning of the word; for at the end of the first week the moon was a straight half, at the full moon the bend was straightening again towards the last half and after the last half the bend was heading towards the bends or crescents of the new moon, last and first sliver; even the pagan yet natural minded Anglo-Saxons had an intrinsic week. Our culture has no place for a ‘week’ which corroborates perfectly with the ‘month’, which is (as it’s name says) based on the moon. Yet the new moon can be seen in Holy Writ some 20 times in the most commonly read King James version, while the Hebrew text from which the King James version is translated uses חדש – Chodesh, the word for new moon or month (as mentioned previously in the apcryphal book of the Wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach or Ecclesiasticus 43:8) some 280 times. The New moon and Sabbath are mentioned by God’s Word side by side in 2Ki. 4:23; Isa. 66:23; Eze. 46:1; Amos 8:5, Col 2:16. Not to mention Leviticus 23 which not only (as mentioned previously) goes out of the way to teach us that the Sabbath is a “feast” or better translated “appointed season”, that is a heavenly event as per Gen 1:14-15, and signaled by the lights of heaven, but that it reaffirms the lunar parallel of the Sabbath by specifying the feast of trumpets to be a Sabbath New moon, the first day of the seventh moonth.
It is common that the new moon will be the stumbling block for any Nomian Christian reading this work, such stumbling blocks are generally one of two:
1. The new moon is not commanded to be a sabbath in the law.
Answer- The New moon is mentioned in the Law, specificly in Numbers 10:10, where YHWH commands the new moon to be among the days of our gladness to blow the trumpet and to call an assembly, Before the temple was destroyed a sacrifice of offerings were presented at this solemn assembly as was so on the Sabbath (Num 28:11-14 shows the priest’s part in this command). Further more, if the Sabbath is a heavenly lunar event, the new moon would definitely be among the Sabbath days, and thus be commanded by all Sabbatical law, especially Exodus 31 and Exodus 20.
2. The new moon based sabbath proposed breaks the 4th commandment by having it’s first or last week of 8 days depending on the new moon and NOT having a consistent 7 day week through out.
Answer- While this is true that all lunar months will have no less than 8 days to the first week of a month of 29 days and if the moonth has 30 days, the last week directly before the 8 day first week will have 8 days as well. Yet this does NOT break the commandment for the following: The days of Sabbath are NOT working days, and simply comply with all sabbtical law that states ” Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the sabbath…”, by this harmony is found as YHWH speaks in Ezekiel 46:1 (as mentioned previously), the Sabbath and new moon are NOT among the “six working days”. This is the simplest way to harmonize the Sabbath command with the Creation laws of Genesis 1:14 leading us directly to the new moon.
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